Breast Cancer

Breast Tumor

  • Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
  • Symptoms of breast cancer
  • Evaluation & Treatment-Breast tumor
  • Self examination of breast
  • Causes of breast pain
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
Family history:

Breast cancer especially in your mother, sister(s), or daughter(s), more so if they had it before age of 50

 Personal History :

  • Age — in general, the older you are, the greater your risk

  • A history of benign breast disease that required biopsies

  • Other breast conditions: lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) or atypical hyperplasia.

  • Radiation therapy to chest before age of 30 is at increased risk of breast cancer.

  • Certain genome changes: Changes in certain genes, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, substantially increase the risk of breast cancer

 Reproductive and Menstrual History:

  • Never having borne a child

  • Having your first child after age 30

  • First menstrual period at an early age before 12

  • Late menopaue after 55

 Life Style Factors:

  • Overweight or obese after menopause
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Drinking alcoho
Possible Symptoms of Breast Cancer
Treatment Options for Breast Tumor
Evaluation & Management of Breast tumor


A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast. Screening mammogram is used to look for breast disease in women who are asymptomatic. Screening mammograms usually take 2 views (x-ray pictures taken from different angles) of each breast.
A diagnostic mammogram is used to diagnose breast disease in women who have breast symptoms or an abnormal result on a screening mammogram.
Limitations of mammograms

A mammogram cannot prove that an abnormal area is cancer. To confirm whether cancer is present, a small amount of tissue must be removed and looked at under a microscope. This procedure, called a biopsy.

Breast implants make it harder to see breast tissue on standard mammograms; do not work as well in WOMAN WITH DENSE BREAST pregnant women and women who are breast-feeding.

American Cancer Society now recommends MRI scans in addition to mammograms for screening in young woman with strong family history of breast cancer.

Other Tests:

Ultrasound: may show whether a lump is solid, filled with fluid (a cyst), or a mixture of both. Cysts usually are not cancer. But a solid lump may be cancer.

MRI: MRI gives detailed pictures of breast tissue. These pictures can show the difference between normal and diseased tissue.

Aspiration (FNAC):Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology) A lump felt by examination and/or identified on a mammogram can be examined by aspiration. During this procedure, a fine needle is inserted in the lump and the aspirate is examined microscopically for presence of cancer cells. FNAC can also help in differentiating a solid from a cystic (fluid filled) lump.

Core biopsy: Doctor uses a wide needle to remove a sample of breast tissue.

Biopsy: If the lump is composed of solid tissue, biopsy may be performed to check for the presence of cancer cells. Biopsies can also be helpful in determining type of cancer and the best method of treatment.

How to Perform a Breast Self-Exam?

Women older than 20 years should perform monthly breast self-examinations (BSE).
Pre-menopausal: Set a regular time to examine your breasts a few days after your period ends, when hormone levels are relatively stable and breasts are less tender.
Menopausal (has not had a period for a year or more): Pick a particular day of the month to do the exam, and then repeat your BSE on that day each month.
Facing a mirror: Visual exam


Stand before a mirror and compare breasts for differences in size, nipple inversion (turning in), bulging, or dimpling. Note any skin or nipple changes, such as a hard knot or nipple discharge.

Inspect your breasts in the following 4 steps, In these positions, your pectoral muscles are contracted, and a subtle dimpling of the skin may appear if a growing tumor has affected a ligaments:
  • With your arms at your sides

  • With your arms overhead

  • With your hands on hips – Press firmly to flex your chest muscles.

  • Bent forward – Inspect your breasts.

Manual exam: standing


  • Raise your left arm overhead

  • Use circular motion and gentle pressure to cover the entire breast area.

  • Take note of any changes in texture, color, or size, nipple discharge. Switch sides and repeat.

  • Best done in the shower with soapy hands.

  • Repeat same procedure for other breast.

Manual exam: Lying down


  • Place a pillow under your left shoulder.
  • Put your left hand under your head.
  • Check the entire breast area with the finger pads of your right hand.
  • Use small circles and follow an up-and-down pattern
  • Use light, medium, and firm pressure over each area of the breast.
  • Feel the breast with the surfaces of the second, third, and fourth fingers, moving systematically and using small, circular motions from the nipple to the outer margins.
  • Gently squeeze the nipple for any discharge.
  • Repeat these steps on your left breast using your right hand.

Causes of Breast Pain

Most often the pain can be attributed to harmless causes such as puberty or pregnancy or cyclical pain associated with the menstrual cycle. Cancer is rarely the cause of breast pain.

Some causes of breast pain are:

  • Fibrocystic breast disease
  • Premenstrual syndrome, cyclic mastalgia
  • Normal hormonal fluctuations
  • Onset of puberty or menopause
  • Pregnancy
  • Breastfeeding (nursing)
  • Estrogen therapy
  • Certain medications such as digoxin , methyldopa spironolactone and chlorpromazine
  • Infection in the breast (breast abscess, mastitis)
  • Breast cancer

Our Specialist

Dr. Nitish Jhawar

Fellow Advance Laparoscopic Surgery
Fellow Colorectal Surgery USA
Senior Laparoscopic & Colorectal Surgeon
Phone No: +91 9322 229 159
Email Id:

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